To date, we have focused on forging a limited number of significant strategic alliances with leading pharmaceutical partners and academic laboratories where both parties contribute expertise to enable the discovery and development of potential microRNA therapeutics.
➤ In April 2008, we formed a strategic alliance with GSK to discover and develop microRNA therapeutics for immuno-inflammatory diseases. In February 2010, we and GSK expanded the alliance to include potential microRNA therapeutics for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection, or HCV.
➤ In June 2010, we formed a strategic alliance with Sanofi to discover and develop microRNA therapeutics for fibrotic diseases. In July 2012, we expanded the alliance to include potential microRNA therapeutics in oncology.
➤ In August 2012, we formed a strategic alliance with AstraZeneca to discover and develop microRNA therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases and oncology.
Under these strategic alliances, we are eligible to receive up to approximately $1.7 billion in milestone payments upon successful commercialization of microRNA therapeutics. These payments include up to $106.5 million upon achievement of preclinical and IND milestones, up to $350.0 million upon achievement of clinical development milestones, up to $420.0 million upon achievement of regulatory milestones and up to $850.0 million upon achievement of commercialization milestones.
In addition to these strategic alliances, in August 2012, Regulus formed a research collaboration with Biogen Idec to identify microRNA biomarkers for multiple sclerosis. Regulus believes that microRNA biomarkers may be used to select optimal patient segments in clinical trials, to develop companion diagnostics, and to monitor disease progression or relapse.